About a century ago, we thought that he was wrong! But now…

SPOILER: It’s not an article on atoms.

It’s a warm summer evening in ancient Greece. Suddenly a crazy philosopher friend of yours tells you something even crazier!

He tells you that all matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles. Of course, you don’t believe him. You know that matter is made of four elements, earth, fire, air, and water.

The theory that everything is made up of four elements was a really popular theory in ancient Greece. Later, Plato assigned four different shapes to these four elements, such as earth (cube), fire (tetrahedron), air (octahedron), and water (icosahedron).

Later…


Infinity means something without an end. But you’ll be surprised to know that there’s something bigger than Infinity (kind of).

My 2-year-old cousin is so adorable, whenever I pay a visit to my aunt, I almost never wanna leave him and come back home. The little guy plays and sleeps all day long, watches stupid Cocomelon videos on YouTube, and runs around the house. His mom is trying hard to teach him, counting up to 20 at least, but he can’t remember past seven. Poor fella.

Counting from zero to ten seems like an impossible task for him. He starts with zero, then one, two, three… tries to remember the next number for some seconds and then four, five, six…


A deep dive into how math keeps your data secure.

Public Key Cryptography. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange.
Public Key Cryptography. Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange.

Years after World War II, when the dust settled, the US and Russia (the Soviet Union at that time) started increasing their power of causing a nuclear holocaust. They both started to develop new missiles and nuclear weapons with the best technology they had, hoping they’ll get to do the BOOM BOOM on the moon next time. They both were developing more power to launch and defend against intercontinental ballistic missiles.

For the Soviet Union, the best way to shoot some cone-headed cylinders of mass destruction on the US was over the north pole. It was the most vulnerable point…


This is probably the second hardest way to earn a million dollars, writing on Medium being the first one.

Reimann Zeta Zeros. Reimann Hypothesis, the million dollar problem.
Reimann Zeta Zeros. Reimann Hypothesis, the million dollar problem.

The picture above is one of the most fascinating things I’ve ever seen. But it’s also one of the most frustrating things I’ve seen that left me confused as hell. I love mathematics and these dots on a graph have haunted mathematicians for more than one and a half-century. So, what is this graph?

It’s the graphical representation of the Riemann hypothesis. It’s one of the most interesting unsolved equation and probably one of the most important unsolved mysteries of mathematics. It’s a very popular problem of science because it’s one of the problems listed in the Millennium Problems of…


It was probably the greatest episode of Marvel’s series so far. We were struck by the twists but there are more to come.

You may listen to the Loki Theme V2 (EPIC GLORIOUS VERSION) while reading this article. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LxUaNmddERQ

SPOILERS AHEAD! SPOILERS AHEAD!

Loki episode 4 was one heck of an episode, probably the best episode in the history of Marvel’s series. It was filled with emotions, twists and turns, a little sprinkle of fun and a ton of “Nooooooo!” moments.

The Nexus Event

The name of this episode is ‘The Nexus Event’ refers to the nexus event caused by Loki and Sylvie’s love towards each other. We still don’t know how that happened but we hope to find it out in the upcoming episodes. …


I’m not kidding. Read this article and find out for yourself.

“Math is the reason the universe sings in a symphony. It is also the reason I shat my pants back in school”

~Samrat Dutta (June, 2021).

Yeah, I made that up. Most of us have a not-so-friendly relationship with the subject. Yet, it made a human say,

“Mathematics is the music of reason”

~James Joseph Sylvester, English mathematician.

Let’s start from the beginning.

Suppose your home is being renovated. There are 6 workers who are working on the renovation. Suppose all of them do equal jobs and all of them are experts in all of the jobs. …


I already wrote an article on Euler’s identity equation, arguably the most beautiful equation in the world. This article is about Euler's characteristic. Whenever I start writing an article on mathematics, my mind tells me to put ‘This article is sponsored by Leonhard Euler’ in the subtitle. There’s probably not even a single field in mathematics in which Euler didn’t contribute something.

The Euler characteristic, a topological invariant, is probably the second most beautiful equation in the field of mathematics. Now, I am not saying this because I personally liked the equation. Many scientists actually prefer considering it as one…


Euler’s identity equation is considered the most beautiful equation in the field of mathematics. But why?

We all know about π, the magical ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. It is represented as 22/7 (approximation). The speciality of the value of π is that, when represented in decimals, the numbers after the decimal point never stop. It is approximately 3.141592653589793238… This is why π is an irrational number — you can’t write it down as a non-infinite decimal.

Let me tell you about another interesting irrational number, e. e literally stands for Euler’s number, and we’re gonna learn a lot about e in this article. It is also an irrational number. …


Freedom House’s report Democracy under Siege declares the biggest democracy of the world, India, a “partly free” country. It’s no longer a free country with a score of 67 out of 100.

When we talk about democracy, we mean the voice of citizens, a nation where people have a voice and opinion. Where they can speak up about their issues and demands. This is what we mean by a free country, right?

But, when the individuals lose the right to speak, the right to question the government, the right to protest, the right to live without corruption at every level of the society, can we still call it a free country?


The tragic incident of 2020 Hathras gang rape of a Dalit (“untouchable”) 19-year-old woman.

Another day, another rape in India. But this one is probably the most horrific of them all. Just for your information, India recorded 88 rape cases every day in 2019. As per NCRB’s annual report titled “Crimes in India -2019” 11% were from the Dalit community (out of the total 32,033 reported rape cases in the year) [1]. Almost 4 women are raped every hour in India. A great country for women, right?

The Dalit community (Dalits are formerly known as “untouchables” in India) is one of the worst affected communities by this pandemic of rape. …

Samrat Dutta

Developer, designer, writer, data analyst, AI enthusiast. https://www.patreon.com/SamratDuttaOfficial https://www.instagram.com/samratduttaofficial

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store